Issue 88
Issue 87
Issue 86
Issue 85
Issue 84
Issue 83
Issue 82
Issue 81
Issue 80
Issue 79
Issue 78
Issue 77
Issue 76
Issue 75
Issue 74
Issue 73
Issue 72
Issue 71
Issue 70
Issue 69
Issue 68
Issue 67
Issue 66
Issue 65
Issue 64
issue 63
Issue 62
Issue 61
Issue 60
Issue 59
Issue 58
Issue 57
Issue 56
Issue 55
Issue 54
Issue 53
Issue 52
Issue 51
Issue 50
Issue 49
Issue 48
Issue 47
Issue 46
Issue 45
Issue 44
Issue 43
Issue 42
Issue 41
Issue 40
Issue 39
Issue 38
Issue 37
Issue 36
Issue 35
Issue 34
Issue 33
Issue 32
Issue 31
Issue 30
Issue 29
Issue 28
Issue 27
Issue 26
Issue 25
Issue 24
Issue 23
Issue 22
Issue 21
Issue 20
Issue 19
Issue 18
Issue 17
Issue 16
Issue 15
Issue 14
Issue 13
Issue 12
Issue 11
Issue 10
Issue 9
Issue 8
Issue 6 and 7
Issue 5
Issue 4
Issue 3
Issue 2
Issue 1


Subscribe to



Wasafiri House Style Sheet and MLA Guidelines

Format  | General Style Points  | Abbreviations  | Use of Italics  | Quotations  | Capitalisation  | Dates and Numbers  | Punctuation  | Spelling  | Translation and Transliteration Conventions  | Endnotes  | Abridged MLA Guidelines
·         Type/print on A4 plain white paper, one side only, double spaced.
·         Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt, align left, unjustified.
·         Title: align left 20 pt (See under ‘Capitalisation’ for use of caps.).
·         Sub title 16 pt followed by author(s) name(s) 14 pt.
·         No centring throughout text.
·         No headers or footers.
·         No page numbers.
·         Single space after full stops.
·         Tab for paragraph indent — 0.5 cm, no space between paragraphs.
·         Do not indent first paragraph, or first paragraph of a new section.
·         Leave one line space before a new section.
·         Use parenthetical referencing for bibliographical material. Other notes (which should be kept to a minimum) should appear as endnotes, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.
·         Any notes should be part of the main body text and be typed normally at the end of the text. These should be kept to a minimum. Do not use the footnote or endnote facility of your WP program. Do not use auto numbering facility.
·         Picture captions: All slides, transparencies or photographs should be numbered and where known, the photographer’s name should be given. If the picture is of a work of art then artist, title, date, dimensions, medium photo credit should be given, in that order. Electronic picture files should be provided as 300dpi tif files. These files should be burnt onto a CD and sent with the manuscript.
·         Please mark in the text of the manuscript the approximate position of all images, highlight in red.
General Style Points
·         Use, ‘eighteenth century’ — NOT ‘18th century’ hyphenate eighteenth-century only when it is being used as an adjective, ie, ‘eighteenth-century writing’.
·         Note number should go at the end of the sentence after the full stop, not immediately next to the text being cited in the footnote.
·         Spell out all numbers under 100.
·         Always use ‘it is’, NOT ‘it’s’.
·         Always use ‘there is’, NOT ‘there’s’.
·         Square brackets should only be used when it is an editorial intervention, authorial intervention should be in normal brackets ( ).
·         There should not be a space before or after a slash used to indicate a line break when quoting poetry, // to indicate verse break.
·         En-dash for sub-clauses not hyphens; use the longer Em-dash — when clause ends in a full stop, eg:
This was the first – if not the only – example.
This was the second example — following the first.
·         Use English (UK) spelling eg, realise, not realize; labour, not labor; colour, not color; catalogue, not catalog; programme, not program (unless referring to a computer program).
·         No full stop after initials or abbreviations in main text, ie, J A Smith.
·         “North”, “South”, etc. are capitalized if they are part of the title of an area or a political division, e.g. South West Africa, Western Australia, the West, but not if they are descriptions in general terms, e.g. southern Scotland, the south of Scotland.
·         Do not use bold or underline for emphasis, always use italics.
·         For interviews, the full name of the interviewer and interviewee should be used the first time they appear in the text (in bold). Thereafter, initials only should be used (also in bold — this is the only instance that the magazine uses bold), with no full stops or spaces between initial letters. eg:
RA As I said earlier … (note: two spaces after initials, before text)
·         Abbreviations should be consistent and easily identifiable throughout.
·         Do not insert an apostrophe in plurals such as MAs, 1970s.
·         Omit the full point after contractions containing the last letter of a word (Dr vols Mrs Mr), and after units of measurement (cm, mm). But add full point when the last letter of contraction is not the last letter of word (vol. Sept. Oct.).
·         There should be no full points in fully capitalised abbreviations (USA, NATO, UNESCO).
·         ie eg etc NOT i.e., e.g. and etc.
Use of italics

Italicise the following:

·         Titles of published books, except the Bible (and books of the Bible) and the Quran (Koran).
·         Names of plays, screenplays, radio and television plays, operas, ballets, and films.

·         Titles of newspapers: New York Times, The Times, The Guardian, Le Monde, Die Welt

·         Titles of magazines, journals, periodicals, whether English-language or not: Journal of Literary Translation, World Literature, Cahiers du Cinéma, Mundo Nuevo.
·         Titles of paintings, sculpture, and other works of art.
·         Words and short phrases in languages other than English (unless naturalised).
·         Titles of chapters, essays, poems, and short stories — these should be in single quotation marks instead.
·         Quotations of less than thirty words are placed in the body of the text ‘in single quotation marks’. Quotations of more than thirty words should begin on a new line (first line not indented) and be identified by an extra line of space before and after.
·         Indent the whole quote by .5 cm on both left and right, set in 11pt and 1.5 line spacing. This is so that the type setters can identify where a quote occurs.
·         Quotation marks should not be used for quotations set out in this way.
·         Use single quotation marks throughout unless there is a quote within a quote, eg, ‘Grammar should be “particular” in all cases.’
·         Do not change the spelling or punctuation in a quotation.

·         The full stop should only be inside the quotation mark if the material quoted is a complete sentence. All other punctuation should fall outside quotation marks.

·         ellipsis should be avoided at the beginning and end of a quotation.
·         In English-language book and article titles, capitalise all words except articles and prepositions. Capitalise all first and last words of titles (regardless of their type) eg, Noises Off, The Saints Go Marching In. The first word of the subtitle should always be capitalised.
·         For book titles and titles of journal articles in languages other than English please adopt the following conventions:
French: upper case to first noun, then lower case
German: lower case after first word, except all nouns
Italian: lower case after first word, except proper names
Portuguese: lower case after first word, except proper names
Spanish: lower case after first word, except proper names

·         AD and BC should be in caps, eg, 30BC−AD19. Note: no full points in between.  
Dates and numbers
·        AD and BC should be in caps, eg, 30BC−AD19. Note: no full points in between. 
 •       6 February 1957 (no commas, no th or nd or rd after numeral).
·         1990s (no apostrophe, not ‘90s or 90’s).
·         fifth century; nineteenth century (numerals), hyphenated if used adjectivally.
·         In spans: 1985–1986, 1939–1945, 1914–1918, use en-dash not hyphen.
·         In page references, etc, where using numerals: 9–10, 21–22, 101–02.
·         Spell out numbers one to ninety-nine in continuous prose except when referring to large amounts of money with currency sign ($8 million), or in mathematical work or measurements. Do not start sentences with numerals.
·         Include a space between numbers and units in measurements, eg, 3 cm, not 3cm.
·         Use a full point on the line for decimal points.
·         In numbers with three or more digits, comma off the digits in threes: 100 1,000, 10,000, 100,000,000
·         Spell out fractions using a hyphen: one-third; four-fifths.
·         Use a single space after a full stop, and after other punctuation marks such as commas and colons. Do not put a space in front of a question mark, or in front of a closing quotation mark. Do not add a space between fullstop and endnote reference number.
·         Possessive ’s should be used except on classical names ending with s (Achilles’).
·         Ellipsis … Treat this like a word, placing a space on either side of the three dots.
British Empire
black and Black British
focusing, focused
Translation and transliteration conventions
·         If you cite foreign-language titles, please give, in parentheses, the date of publication and the actual title of its translation, if there is a published one. If no published translation exists, please give a literal translation, without italics, in square brackets. Examples:
Title with published translation: . . . Fin de partie (1957, Endgame)
Title with no published translation: . . . Nye Fortaellinger [1893, New Tales]
·         If you give quotations in other languages, please provide an English translation immediately following in parentheses.
Endnote numerals in text in Superscript.
We request you to keep notes to a minimum and only use if absolutely essential. All references to books or journals cited will appear in the text and Works Cited section according to standard MLA guidelines (see below). Reviews should avoid notes.


The magazine uses a slightly modified version of the format advocated by Joseph Gibaldi and Walter Achtert, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. The Modern Languages Association of America, 1999 ( References conform to the MLA style with the following exceptions:

1.       Use single quotes (not double) throughout.
2.       The quotation mark should always be inside punctuation. (Except when the quotation is a complete sentence, when the fullstop is within the closing quotation mark.)
In Text
·         Reference citation in the text should be as follows. The citation should be as brief as possible while directing the reader to the correct reference. We do not encourage large numbers of unnecessary references in articles submitted.
Single author

Simply use Name followed by any relevant page number: (Marcuse 197)
In text: Tannen has argued this point (178–85)
More than one author with same name

Add the first initial (or full first name if initial is the same): (A Patterson 183; L Patterson 230)

Two or three authors

Give all author names: (Rabking, Greenberg, and Olander vii)
More than three authors

Follow the bibliographic entry: (Lauter et al 2425) or all last names if given
·         Parenthetical referencing should be keyed to the surname of the author in the Reference section. Surname and page number are sufficient, eg:
It has been seen as ‘the most profound novel of its age’ (Holden 33).
·         If the name of the author is evident, the page number will suffice:
Holden has called it ‘the most profound novel of its age’ (33).
·         If the source is unpaginated, ‘no page’ should be indicated:
It has been seen as ‘the most profound novel of its age’ (Holden np).
·         If an author has two or more texts represented in the References, a distinguishing abbreviation should be used:
Holden’s opinion changed between 1928 and 1944; what she had seen as ‘the most profound novel of its age’ (Fiction 33) was later characterised as ‘deeply flawed’ (Revisited 21).
This opinion changed between 1928 and 1944; what had been seen as ‘the most profound novel of its age’ (Holden, Fiction 33) was later characterised as ‘deeply flawed’ (Holden, Revisited 21).
·         The parenthetical reference follows the punctuation at the end of indented quotations:
In Burke’s criticism we have continual discussion of texts as living objects for both writer and reader, both of whom employ ‘strategies’ to deal with situations. He can also be an excellent close critic. Burke is indispensable because of his recognition that literature actually comes from the texture of life and works within it, like a yeast. (Seymour-Smith 62)
Works Cited Section — Example References

Please do not cite bibliographical information from memory; verify each entry carefully in your bibliography against the original source. We must rely on our contributors to be accurate in their citations.


A Book by a Single Author

Kipling, Rudyard. Kim. 1901. New York: Penguin Classics, 1987.
An Anthology or a Compilation

Lopate, Phillip, ed. The Art of the Personal Essay: An Anthology from the Classical Era to the Present. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1994.
Spafford, Peter, comp. and ed. Interference: The Story of Czechoslovakia in the Words of Its Writers. Cheltenham: New Clarion, 1992.

Two or More Books by the Same Author


·         Use three hyphens followed by period and then title, or comma and ed. … if appropriate
·         Works listed under the same name are alphabetized by title
Borroff, Marie. Language and the Past: Verbal Artistry in Frost, Stevens, and Moore. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979.
---, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Norton, 1967.
---, ed. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1963.
A Book by Two or More Authors

Eggins, Suzanne, and Diana Slade. Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell, 1997.
·         If there are more than three authors, you may name only the first and add et al. (‘and others’), or you may give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page.
Gilman, Sander, et al. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.
Gilman, Sander, Helen King, Roy Porter, George Rousseau, and Elaine Showalter. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.
·         Repeat names in full if the same person is part of a different authorship. Do not use three hyphens unless the total authorship is the same
A Book by a Corporate Author

American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Charles B. Layman. New York: Random, 1989.

A Work in an Anthology

Allende, Isabel. ‘Toad’s Mouth’. Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83–88.
·         Often the works in anthologies have been published before. If you wish to inform your reader of the date when a previously published piece other than a scholarly article first appeared, you may follow the title of the piece with the year of original publication and a period.
Franklin, Benjamin. ‘Emigration to America’. 1782. The Faber Book of America. Ed. Christopher Ricks and William L. Vance. Boston: Faber, 1992. 24–26.
An Article in a Reference Book

‘Noon’. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
Mohanty, Jitendra M. ‘Indian Philosophy’. The New Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.
An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreword or an Afterword

Borges, Jorge Luis. Foreword. Selected Poems, 1923–1967. By Borges. Ed. Norman Thomas Di Giovanni. New York: Delta-Dell, 1973. xv–xvi.
·         If the introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword has a title, give the title, enclosed in quotation marks, immediately before the name of the part.
Brodsky, Joseph. ‘Poetry as a Form of Resistance to Reality’. Foreword. Winter Dialogue. By Tomas Venclova. Trans. Diana Senechal. Evanston: Hydra-Northwestern UP, 1997. vii–xviii.
Breton, André. ‘Un Grand Poete Noir’ [‘A Great Black Poet’]. Preface. 1943. Notebook of a Return to My Native Land. By Aimé Césaire. Trans. Annette Smith and

Clayton Eshleman. 1939. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 2001. v–xiii.


An Anonymous Book

Encyclopedia of Virginia. New York: Somerset, 1993.
A Translation

 Beowulf. Trans. E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Nicholas Howe. New York: Norton, 2001.
Hildegard of Bingen. Selected Writings. Trans. Mark Atherton. New York: Penguin, 2001.
A Book Published in a Second or Subsequent Edition

Bondanella, Peter. Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present. 3rd ed. New York: Continuum, 2001.
A Multivolume Work

Blanco, Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775–1783: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993.

Crane, Stephen. The University of Virginia Edition of the Works of Stephen Crane. Ed. Fredson Bowers. 10 vols. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1969–76.
·         If you are using one volume of a multivolume work state the number of the volume:
Lawrence, D. H. The Letters of D. H. Lawrence. Ed. James T. Boulton. Vol. 8. New York: Cambridge UP, 2000.
A Book in a Series

Neruda, Pablo. Canto General. Trans. Jack Schmitt. Latin Amer. Lit. and Culture 7. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.
A Republished Book

Atwood, Margaret. The Blind Assassin. 2000. New York: Knopf-Random, 2001.
A Book with Multiple Publishers

Wells, H. G. The Time Machine. 1895. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1992.
A Government Publication
Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food. Dept. of the Environment, Transport, and the Regions. Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Deal for Rural England. London: HMSO, 2000.
New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. The Adirondack Park in the Twenty-First-Century. Albany: State of New York, 1990.
Poore, Benjamin Perley, comp. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the United States, September 5, 1774–March 4, 1881. US 48th Cong., 2nd sess. Misc. Doc. 67. Washington: GPO, 1885.

The Published Proceedings of a Conference

Freed, Barbara F., ed. Foreign Language Acquisition Research and the Classroom. Proc. of Consortium for Lang. Teaching and Learning Conf., Oct. 1989, U of Pennsylvania. Lexington: Heath, 1991.
Published conference paper

Hualde, Jose Ignacio. ‘Patterns of Correspondence in the Adaptation of Spanish Borrowings in Basque’. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Ed. Steve S. Chang, Lily Liaw, and Josef Ruppenhofer. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Soc., 2000. 348–58.

Unpublished conference papers

Give the title of the paper and conference, conference dates and place of conference, and add that it is an unpublished conference paper.
An Unpublished Dissertation

Boyle, Anthony T. ‘The Epistemological Evolution of Renaissance Utopian Literature, 1516–1657’. Diss. New York U, 1983.
A Published Dissertation

Dietze, Rudolf F. Ralph Ellison: The Genesis of an Artist. Diss. U Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1982. Erlanger Beiträge zur Sprach-und Kunstwissenschaft 70. Nürnberg: Carl, 1982.

An Article in a Journal with Continuous Pagination

Hanks, Patrick. ‘Do Word Meanings Exist?’ Computers and the Humanities 34 (2000): 205–15.
Mann, Susan. ‘Myths of Asian Womanhood’. Journal of Asian Studies 59 (2000): 835–62.
An Article in a Journal that pages each issue separately

Albada, Kelly F. ‘The Public and Private Dialogue about the American Family on Television’. Journal of Communication 50.4 (2000): 79–110.
·         Some journals do not use volume numbers at all, numbering issues only. Treat the issue numbers of such journals as you would volume numbers.
An Article in a Newspaper

Jeromack, Paul. ‘This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor’. New York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+.
·         Abbreviate months as follows: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

An Article in a Magazine

Mehta, Pratap Bhanu. ‘Exploding Myths’. New Republic 6 June 1998: 17–19.
An Anonymous Article

‘Dubious Venture’. Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64–65.

A Special Issue

Perret, Delphine, and Marie-Denise Shelton, eds. Maryse Conde. Spec. issue of Callaloo 18.3 (1995): 535–711.
Somin, Ilya. ‘Do Politicians Pander?’ State Autonomy. Spec. issue of Critical Review 14.2–3 (2000): 147–55.
A Legal Source

New York Times Co. v. Tasini. No. 00-201. Supreme Ct. of the US. 25 June 2001.


Basic Entry Document from Internet Site

Zeki, Semir. ‘Artistic Creativity and the Brain’. Science 6 July 2001: 51–52. Science Magazine. 2002. Amer. Assn. For the Advancement of Science. 24 Sept. 2002 <>.

Entire Internet Site

Electronic Text Center. Ed. David Seaman. 2002. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 2002 <>.

Online Books

Nagata, Linda. Goddesses. 2000. 4 Oct. 2002 <>.
Keats, John. ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’. Poetical Works. 1884. Great Books Online. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. 2002. 5 May 2002 <>.
United States. Dept. of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. By Howard N. Snyder. Dec. 2001. 29 June 2002 <>.
Online Periodicals

Butler, Darrell L., and Martin Sellbom. ‘Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning’. Educause Quarterly 25.2 (2002): 22–28. Educause. 3 Aug. 2002 <>.
Publications on CD-ROM, Diskette or Magnetic Tape

Braunmuller, A. R., ed. Macbeth. By William Shakespeare. CD-ROM. New York: Voyager, 1994.
·         It is important to state the publication medium as different formats may vary.
E-mail Communication

Harner, James L. E-mail to the author. 20 Aug. 2002.

Contact Us Guidelines VideosPrivacy Terms Accessibility
Web design London : Pedalo Ltd